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Glossary-A

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Algorithms: Algorithms are essentially a set of well-defined finite sequence instructions used towards finishing a task. Algorithms are used extensively in computer science, bio-informatics, mathematics et al for calculation, data processing and other tasks. A computer program is one of the most basic

example:

 

algorithm

Analog signal: Analog signals with wide ranging applications in electronics are a type of electrical signal which is continuously variable over time. Analog signals typically make use of small fluctuations in the signal itself for passing of information. Common examples of Analog signals are pressure, light, sound, and temperature- all of which can be electrically represented by Analog current or voltages.

Analog signal

Application Specific Integrated Circuit: Application Specific Integrated Circuit or ASIC in short is a microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) chip with a design that is application or product specific. Typical examples of ASIC application includes custom-made IC’s used for a particular type of automated test equipment or ICs that can encode/decode digital data by applying proprietary encoding/decoding algorithms.

Artificial Neural Network: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is a system based on the function of a human brain.  The functioning of Artificial Neural Networks is grounded on creating interconnectivity between different processing elements, with each connection analogous to a single neuron in a human brain. The neurons may be simulated using a digital computer or may be constructed physically. ANN is a powerful tool for data analysis as they are able to identify and determine correlated patterns between input data sets vis-à-vis the target values.

Artificial Sensing: Artificial sensing is an emerging field incorporating numerous disparate technologies for animating, enhancing or digitalizing the human senses of sight, smell, taste, hearing and touch.

Asynchronous Pipelining: Asynchronous pipelining is a type of parallelism where processors perform various loop tasks (loop statements) contrary to different loop iterations. An asynchronous pipeline schedule is especially relevant in distributed memory systems where pipeline control is distributed across processors.

Atomic Force Microscope:  Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool to manipulate matters at the nanoscale. It is today used for imaging a wide range of surfaces such as glass, composites, ceramics, polymers and biological samples. Atomic Force Microscopy finds increasing application in nanotechnology and biophysics.
The integral part of an AFM is a microscale cantilever containing a sharp tip (probe) at its end. This is utilised for scanning the specimen surface. The cantilever is typically microfabricated from Silicon (Si) or Silicon Nitride (Si3N4). The tip radius of curvature is on the order of 10 nm). 
The functioning of the AFM is as follows when the tip is put in close proximity to the sample surface, the forces that act between the sample and the tip results into deflection of the cantilever. The deflection is measured by a multi-segment photodiode through a laser beam that gets reflected on the surface of the cantilever. 

AFM

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) as the name suggests is a robotic device driven through water by a propulsion system. AUVs are self-sufficient vehicles carrying their own energy source.  The control of the vehicle is done using an onboard computer thus eliminating the need of operators located elsewhere. It is programmed with a given set of instructions to carry out missions in underwater. As the AUV traverses across, onboard Sensors take samples from the ocean and the data stored in the vehicle is retrieved at the end of the mission.

AUV

 

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