Nanometrology: Nanometrology essentially refers to the science of measurement at nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in manufacturing technology- producing nanomaterials and devices where the requirements are highly demanding. Moving from manufacturing, Nanometrology now encompasses measurement of species or events on a nano-scale also.

Noble metals: Gold(Au), Silver(Ag), and Platinum Group metals(PGMs) this include Platinum(Pt), Palladium(Pd), Rhodium(Rh), Ruthenium(Ru), Osmium(Os) and Iridium(Ir)  all belongs to the category of Noble metals. They are chemically inert and noncorrosive, does not react with most of the acids (chemically inert) and is inactive towards oxygen.